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Conservation planning : informed decisions for a healthier planet

Author: Craig Groves; Edward T Game
Publisher: Greenwood Village, Colorado : Roberts and Company Publishers, [2016]
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Craig Groves; Edward T Game
ISBN: 9781936221516 1936221519
OCLC Number: 928136727
Description: xxiii, 580 pages : color illustrations, color maps ; 25 cm
Contents: Machine generated contents note: ch. 1 Why, Where, How, and What of Conservation Planning --
Overview --
Topics --
Importance of Conservation Planning --
Why Plan? --
Brief History of Planning for Nature Conservation --
Box 1.1 Values, Science, and Conservation Planning --
Many Forms of Planning for Nature Conservation --
Systematic Conservation Planning --
Strategic Conservation Planning --
Natural Resource Management Planning --
Multiple Use and Multiple Objective Planning --
Ecological Network Planning --
Protected Area Planning --
Climate Adaptation Planning --
Species Conservation Planning --
State Wildlife Action Planning --
Land Use and Related Forms of Local Planning --
National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Planning --
Improving Conservation Planning for Successful Implementation --
How This Book Is Organized --
Key Messages --
References --
ch. 2 Getting Started: Foundations, Planning Principles and Standards, and a Road Map to Conservation Planning --
Overview --
Topics --
Planning Context --
Purpose and Scope --
Decisions --
Constraints --
Audience for the Plan --
Level of Investment in Planning --
Building an Effective Planning Team: The Power of a Multidisciplinary Approach --
Principles and Standards for Conservation Planning --
Box 2.1 Miradi --
It's Not Just about Land Conservation: Special Considerations for Planning in Freshwater and Marine Realms --
Road Map for Conservation Planning --
Key Messages --
References --
ch. 3 Which Way Paradise? Establishing Objectives --
Overview --
Topics --
Terminology --
Box 3.1 A Rosetta Stone for Fundamental Objectives --
Vision Statement --
Fundamental Objectives --
Ends versus Means --
Why Focus on Fundamental Objectives? --
Box 3.2 Value-Focused Thinking --
Box 3.3 Support for Fundamental Objectives --
Getting to Fundamental Objectives --
Box 3.4 Value Statements --
What Makes a Good Fundamental Objective? --
Challenges in Identifying Fundamental Objectives --
We Care about It All --
How Many Fundamental Objectives Should There Be? --
Distinguishing Types of Objectives --
Process Objectives --
Intermediate Objectives --
Strategic Objectives --
Three Classes of Fundamental Objectives --
Environmental Objectives --
Biodiversity --
Conservation Features --
Categories of Biodiversity Features --
Box 3.5 The Concept of Surrogacy --
Influence of Data Availability on Choice of Conservation Features --
How Many Features Can You Have? --
Species --
Communities and Ecosystems --
Abiotic Units --
Ecological Processes --
Ecosystem Services --
Social and Economic Objectives --
What Social and Economic Objectives Belong in a Conservation Plan? --
Equal or Not? --
Eliciting Social and Economic Objectives --
Communication --
Types of Social and Economic Objectives --
Building a Hierarchy of Social and Economic Objectives --
Key Messages --
References --
ch. 4 Making Objectives Measurable: Indicators and Targets --
Overview --
Topics --
Identifying Measurable Indicators --
How Do Indicators Relate to Features? --
What Makes a Good Indicator? --
Natural, Proxy, and Constructed Indicators and Scales --
Box 4.1 Reporting on "True" Conservation Progress --
Targets --
Box 4.2 Trade-Offs or Targets? --
Where Do Targets Come From? --
Convention on Biological Diversity --
Historical Baselines and Naturalness --
Box 4.3 Moving Forward in an Anthropogenic World --
Approaches to Setting Targets --
Species-Area Relationship --
Population Viability Analyses --
Precautionary Principle --
Stakeholder-Established Targets --
Threshold-Based Targets --
Targets for Social and Economic Objectives --
Targets for Economic Activities --
Social Targets --
Key Messages --
References --
ch. 5 Harnessing Knowledge: Situation Analysis, Threat Assessment, and Data --
Overview --
Topics --
Situation Analysis and Threat Assessment --
Situation Analysis --
Threat Assessment versus Situation Analysis --
Threat Assessment --
Finding the Source --
Threat Assessment Procedure --
What's Happening in the Future? --
Ranking Threats --
Cumulative Threats --
Data for Conservation Plans --
Data, Data Everywhere and Not a Byte to Use --
How Much Data Do I Need? --
Linking Information Needs to the Question at Hand --
Box 5.1 Gabon: Finding Data Where There Is None --
Box 5.2 Data Management --
Calculating the Value of Information --
Conservation Features --
Species --
Ecological Communities --
Abiotic Feature Data --
Ecosystem Service Data --
Social Data --
Box 5.3 Generating Conservation Features from Abiotic Data --
Box 5.4 Quantitative versus Qualitative Social Data Collection --
Temporal and Spatial Resolution --
Box 5.5 Importance of Considering Spatial Scale in Planning --
Cost Data --
Types of Cost --
Estimating Costs --
Box 5.6 Making Cost Data Comparable --
Are Some Cost Data Better Than No Cost Data? --
Expert Judgment --
Bias-Cognitive and Motivational --
Getting Better Judgments from Experts --
Who Should Be Considered an "Expert"? --
Box 5.7 Delphi Approach to Expert Elicitation --
Four-Point Question --
Don't Ask Too Many Questions --
Traditional Knowledge --
Box 5.8 Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Maps --
Challenges of Using Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Conservation Planning --
Key Messages --
References --
ch. 6 Framing Conservation Planning Problems --
Overview --
Topics --
What Is a Well-Framed Problem? --
Box 6.1 Why Are Conservation Planning Problems Tough? --
Box 6.2 Common Psychological Biases That Influence Conservation Decisions --
Options --
Box 6.3 Developing Options for a Conservation Plan --
Rule: Connect "Where" and "How" by Prioritizing Actions --
Consequences --
Theory of Change and Logic Models --
Predicting Consequences --
General Guidance for Predicting Consequences --
Three Approaches to Predicting Consequences --
Box 6.4 Combining Criteria to Estimate Conservation Benefit --
Important Considerations When Predicting Consequences --
Box 6.5 Should We Protect the Most Vulnerable or the Least Vulnerable? --
Rule: All Plans Should Consider the Consequences for Multiple Objectives --
Key Messages --
References --
ch. 7 Solving Conservation Planning Problems: Methods and Tools --
Overview --
Topics --
What Does It Mean to "Solve" a Conservation Planning Problem? --
Generalized Consequence Table Concept --
Dominance --
Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) --
Box 7.1 Basic Elements of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) --
Normalizing Data --
Box 7.2 Example of Spatial MCDA --
Weighting Criteria --
Direct Weighting --
Analytic Hierarchy Process --
Swing Weighting --
What to Do with Weights Once You Have Them --
Sensitivity Analysis --
Return on Investment (ROI) --
Ranking --
ROI with Actions and Locations --
INFFER --
Spatial Prioritization --
General Principles --
Box 7.3 A Two-Minute History of Spatial Prioritization --
Prioritizing Locations for Multiple Actions --
Incorporating Connectivity in Spatial Prioritization --
Connectivity across Realms --
Software --
Marxan with Zones --
Zonation --
Optimization --
Optimization Methods --
Exact Optimization --
Heuristic Optimization --
Optimization Software --
Box 7.4 RobOff --
Rules of Thumb --
Presenting and Navigating Trade-Offs --
Trade-Off Caution --
Choosing the Best Methods and Tools --
Key Messages --
References --
ch. 8 Uncertainty and Risk --
Overview --
Topics --
Uncertainty --
Kinds of Uncertainty --
Acknowledging Uncertainty --
Responding to Uncertainty --
Minimize Uncertainty --
Box 8.1 Value of Information --
Compensate --
Live with It-Finding Robust Solutions --
Scenarios and Scenario Analysis --
Scenarios versus Alternatives --
Scenario Analysis --
Box 8.2 Example of Scenario Analysis for Different Energy Management Alternatives --
How Do You Design Scenarios? --
Risk and Risk Assessment --
Dimensions of Risk --
Risk Assessment Process --
Identifying Risks --
Developing Indices of Consequence and Likelihood --
Estimating Risks --
Prioritizing and Responding to Risks --
Key Messages --
References --
ch. 9 Moving Beyond Natural: Adapting Conservation Plans to Climate Change --
Overview --
Topics --
Box 9.1 Putting Adaptation Principles into Action for Nature Reserves of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) --
Defining Adaptation and Adaptation-Related Concepts --
Risk and Uncertainty --
Vulnerability Assessments --
Social Adaptation and Vulnerability --
Ecosystem-Based Adaptation --
Scale Considerations --
Resilience --
Incorporating Adaptation into Conservation Planning --
Establishing or Revising Objectives (Chapter 3) --
Box 9.2 Adaptation Planning in Freshwater and Marine Environments --
Selecting Features (Chapter 3) --
Box 9.3 The Climate Clinic --
Situation Analysis and Data (Chapter 5) --
Developing Alternative Options (Chapter 6) --
Box 9.4 Climate Wizard --
Prioritizing and Taking Actions (Chapter 7) --
Considering Uncertainty (Chapter 8) --
Monitoring, Evaluating, and Revising (Chapter 12) --
Strategic Adaptation Approaches --
Improving Connectivity --
Box 9.5 Improving Connectivity in Vernal Pools, New Jersey, USA --
Identifying and Protecting Refugia --
Expanding Protected and Conservation Area Networks --
Conserving the Stage-Conserving Land Facets --
Assisted Migration-Managed Relocation --
Improving Ecosystem Function and Process --
Box 9.6 Key Questions for Considering Assisted Colonization or Managed Relocations as an Adaptation Strategy --
Reducing Non-Climate Stressors Note continued: Box 9.7 Beavers as Adaptation Agents --
Getting Over the Adaptation Hurdles --
Key Messages --
References --
ch. 10 Planning for Ecosystem Services: Building a Bridge to Human Well-Being --
Overview --
Topics --
Box 10.1 Ecosystem Services and Planning in the U.S. Forest Service and Federal Government --
Classifying Ecosystem Services --
Mapping Ecosystem Services --
Box 10.2 Using InVEST to Help Develop an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan in Belize --
Valuation of Ecosystem Services --
Box 10.3 Mapping ES Supplies, Flows, and Beneficiaries-An Example from the Puget Sound, USA --
Planning Steps for Ecosystem Services --
Step 1: Establishing Objectives and Conservation Features (Chapter 3) --
Step 2: Situation Analysis and Data (Chapter 5) --
Step 3: Framing and Solving Conservation Planning Problems (Chapters 6-7) --
Step 4: Solving Conservation Planning Problems (Chapter 7) --
Step 5: Assessing Risk and Uncertainty (Chapter 8) --
Other Side of the Story: Critiques and Integration --
Lessons Learned --
Key Messages --
References --
ch. 11 From Planning to Action and Communication: The Art of Implementation --
Overview --
Topics --
Implementation-Influencing Conservation Decisions --
Table of Contents --
Box 11.1 Proposed Table of Contents for a Conservation Plan --
Figuring Out What to Do When-Work Planning --
Ensuring That Resources Are Sufficient: Budgeting and Fund-Raising --
Staying on Track and Getting the Plan Done: Project Management --
Box 11.2 Project Management Basics --
Challenges of Implementation --
Lessons Learned in Successfully Implementing and Managing Conservation Projects --
Box 11.3 A Conservation Planning Success Story-Marine Protected Area Network in North-Central California --
Three Implementation Approaches for Greater Conservation Impact --
Box 11.4 Management of Danish Forests --
Systemic Impact for Conservation-Leveraging and Scaling Up --
Hitting Nature's Sweet Spot-Integrating Conservation Planning with Land Use and Landscape Planning --
Being Opportunistic --
Moving from Regional Assessments and Plans to Local Actions --
Strategic Communication for Implementation --
Key Messages --
References --
ch. 12 Monitoring and Evaluation for Conservation Impact --
Overview --
Topics --
Approaches to Monitoring and Evaluation --
Box 12.1 Commonly Used Terms in Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) --
Adaptive Management --
Developing a Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Program --
Steps in Monitoring and Evaluation --
A. Defining the Key Audiences --
B. Making Investment Choices --
Box 12.2 A Cost-Effective Monitoring Program --
Box 12.3 Using Systematic Monitoring to Evaluate and Adapt Management of a Tiger Reserve in Northern Lao PDR --
C. Selecting Indicators --
D. Designing a Monitoring Program and Analyzing Monitoring Data --
Box 12.4 Recommended Reference Books and Publications on Designing Monitoring Programs --
E. Adjusting and Improving --
Learning --
Getting Over the Hurdles --
Ask Management Relevant Questions --
Engage Leadership --
Peer Review --
Don't Reinvent the Wheel --
Better Communicate the Benefits --
Make Smart Investment Choices --
Key Messages --
References --
ch. 13 Epilogue: Weaving Together the Futures of Conservation Planning and Nature Conservation --
Overview --
Topics --
References.
Responsibility: Craig R. Groves, Edward T. Game.
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